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Exercise Prescription for Back Pain

Teaser: 

Eugene K. Wai, MD, MSc, CIP, FRCSC1
R. Michael Galbraith, DO, CCFP (SEM), Dip Sport Med2
Denise C. Lawrence Wai BScPT3
Susan Yungblut, PT, MBA4
Ted Findlay, DO, CCFP, FCFP5

1 is an orthopedic surgeon who specializes in the care of adult spinal disorders. He is also an Associate Professor in the Department of Surgery at the University of Ottawa. In addition he is the Research Chair for the Canadian Spine Society.
2Private practice Elite Sports Medicine in Lethbridge, AB.. Head Team Physician, Lethbridge Hurricanes (WHL). Clinical Lecturer, Dept of Family Medicine, University of Calgary School of Medicine.
3 is a Physical Therapist in Ottawa and a Research Assistant at The Ottawa Hospital.
4 Physiotherapist, Liquidgym, Ottawa; Nordic Walking Instructor and Urban Poling Master Trainer, OttawaNordicWalks; Past Director, Exercise is Medicine Canada
5 is a Clinical Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Calgary. He is also in a Private Family Medicine practice. In addition he is on Medical Staff at Alberta Health Services, Calgary Zone in Calgary, Alberta.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Exercise is one of the most effective and simplest evidence-based recommendations to manage acute and chronic back pain. This paper discusses the physiology and evidence to support exercise as effective treatment. We will provide guidance on how to assess and prescribe exercise and offer methods to educate and encourage physical activity for patients with back pain.
Key Words: Back Pain, Physical Activity, Exercise Prescription, Motivational Interviewing.

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2

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1. Exercise is one of the most effective and simplest evidence-based recommendations to manage acute and chronic back pain.
2. For chronic back pain the most important exercise is the one the patient will actually do.
3. For acute back pain the exercise prescriptions should take into account the patient's directional preference of exercise (Pattern of Pain) and the patient's unique situation.
4. Exercise Prescriptions should include the F.I.T.T. principle (Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type).
Simply asking the patient about exercise has been shown to be effective in improving health outcomes. Consistent messaging about the positive role of physical activity is important.
Most forms of physical activity are usually beneficial. The exercise prescription should take in to account what the patient is actually prepared to do.
Patients often require reassurance that pain associated with exercising does not lead to physical harm.
Motivational interviewing is a structured, empathetic method to engage resistant patients.
Walking is free.
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Keep Your Head when Dealing with Concussion

Teaser: 

Dr. Aly Abdulla1
Adil Abdulla2

Neelam Charania3

1 is a family doctor with specialties in sports medicine, palliative care, and cosmetic medicine. He can be found on Twitter, LinkedIn and https://ihopeyoufindthishumerusblog.wordpress.com/
2 is a law student at the University of Toronto that has suffered 13 concussions.
3 is a Masters in Occupational Therapy from Boston University and involved in managing and rehabilitating patients with chronic concussion syndrome.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Concussion or minimal traumatic brain injury is a confusing medical condition that is more common than previously appreciated. At the Berlin congress in 2016, 3 key tools and 11 key processes have been developed to clarify this condition and ensure good outcomes. This article summarizes those recommendations in an easy to use format.
Key Words: Concussion, minimal traumatic brain injury (mTBI), symptoms, protocol.
Do the SCAT5 or cSCAT5 on everyone with a mTBI.
When thinking of concussion also consider cervical spine or neck injury and vestibular injury. Learn to differentiate them. Treat accordingly.
The patient should rest for 24–48 hours after the injury, then can be encouraged to become gradually and progressively more active while staying below their cognitive and physical symptom-ex-acerbation thresholds
Any patients having persistent concussive symptoms (> 14 days for an adult or > 30 days in a child) should be referred to a specialist in mTBI and prescribed active rehabilitation.
Have a high rate of suspicion for mTBI
Most mTBI are managed well with Remove from play, Re-evaluate in office using SCAT5, and Rest
Repeat clinical testing is de rigeur for Return to Play
Learn to manage symptoms like poor sleep, mood changes, and deconditioning while patients recover.
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JCCC 2018 Issue 3

Table of Contents

What is Pediatric Alopecia Areata?

Teaser: 

Kailie Luan,1 Joseph M. Lam, MD, FRCPC,2

1Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
2Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Dermatology, University of British Columbia, BC.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Alopecia areata is a chronic immune-mediated disorder that causes nonscarring hair loss. Although most commonly causing discrete hair loss on the scalp, the condition can affect any hair bearing area of the body and cause significant emotional and psychosocial distress. While intralesional glucocorticoids are often used as initial treatment for adults with the condition, therapeutic options for children are more limited with concerns of treatment tolerability and potential side effects. This article aims to provide an overview of alopecia areata with particular focus on managing this chronic condition in children.
Key Words: Alopecia areata, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, pediatrics.
Alopecia areata is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by non scarring hair loss that can affect any hair-bearing area of the body
While intralesional glucocorticoids are often used as initial treatment for adults, potent topical corticosteroids are effective as first line therapy in children due to better treatment tolerability
The diagnosis is generally made on clinical grounds with the majority of patients presenting with limited patchy disease affecting the scalp
In cases of inadequate response, topical minoxidil or immunotherapy are additional options, with systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents reserved for refractory cases, and IL-2 and JAK inhibitors as new emerging therapies for AA
Not all patients with alopecia areata require treatment as up to 50 percent of patients with limited alopecia areata will experience spontaneous regrowth of hair.4
Due to the benign nature of alopecia areata, and spontaneous remission is common, watchful waiting is considered a reasonable option in cases of limited disease.
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Upper Extremity Pain: Where's the pathology—Neck or Shoulder?

Teaser: 

Andrew Trenholm, MD, MSc, FRCSC,1
Fred Xavier, MD, PhD,2

Sean Christie, MD, FRCSC,3

1 Associate Professor Orthopaedics (Upper Extremity and Trauma) Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS.
2Fellow, Combined Spine Program, Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS.
3 Associate Professor, Dalhousie University, Department of Surgery (Neurosurgery), Halifax, NS.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Neck and shoulder disorders are among the leading causes of pain and disability. History and physical examination are key components to clinical diagnosis and to determining whether the source of the arm pain is the neck or the shoulder. When consistent with the history, it is recommended to perform targeted provocative tests or manoeuvers. Several studies have shown that using a test item cluster improves diagnostic accuracy more than any single test item alone. Imaging, electrophysiological and laboratory studies are usually unnecessary unless there are clear clinical indications.
Key Words: Cervical radiculopathy, Neck pain, Shoulder pain, Clinical diagnosis, Provocative tests.

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2

You can take quizzes without subscribing; however, your results will not be stored. Subscribers will have access to their quiz results for future reference.

1. Sinister pathology is rarely produces completely intermittent pain.
2. Neck pain is frequently associated with psychosocial stress and heightened emotional response.
3. The first step in taking the history is to establish the site of the dominant pain.
4. A neurological examination should include tests for spinal cord involvement causing cervical myelopathy.
5. Neck dominant pain can include pain felt in the face, upper back, top of the shoulder, anterior chest and headache.
The best way to differentiate between the neck and the shoulder as the source of upper limb pain is to assess the effect of movement in each area on the patient's typical pain.
The provocative tests should be chosen to confirm a suspected diagnosis. By themselves they are not a reliable guide to the specific pathology.
Neck and shoulder problems may coexist particularly in older patients and the examination of one should always include a screen of the other.
Radicular arm pain is more often caused by boney foraminal nerve root entrapment than by a new "soft" disc herniation.
To have access to full article that these tools were developed for, please subscribe. The cost to subscribe is only $20 USD per year and you will gain full access to all the premium content on www.healthplexus.net, an educational portal, that hosts 1000s of clinical reviews, case studies, educational visual aids and more as well as within the mobile app.
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