The hallmark of Diabetic Nephropathy is albuminuria. Albuminuria is a marker of poor renal and CV prognosis and should be identified in all patients where CKD is suspected.
Organ protection should be a priority in patients with DN. Very solid evidence exists for the SGTL2i class as it pertains to renal protection. Patients with DN are at very high risk of CV disease and its complications. There are robust data demonstrating CV protection when SGLT2i and GLP-1RAs are used in patients with DKD.
A1C control remains a critical component of preventing the progression of DN and can now be achieved in a safe manner with newer agents that do not cause hypoglycemia.
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Screening and Management of Diabetic Microvascular Complications in Older Adults
Amish Parikh, MD and I. George Fantus, MD, FRCPC, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Microvascular complications of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) can be classified into three major categories: retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. Numerous studies have consistently shown that the development of complications in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is related to several factors. The most important ones, however, include glycemic control (as measured by hemoglobin A1c) and the duration of diabetes. This article reviews the details of screening and management of diabetic microvascular complications in older adults. It incorporates guidelines from both the Canadian and American Diabetes Associations, as well as reviews of recently published literature. Key words: diabetes mellitus, retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, screening, management.
Strategies for the Management of Hypertension in the Diabetic Patient
David H. Fitchett MD, FRCP(C), St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
For the diabetic patient, hypertension more than doubles the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death, and is central in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Control of hypertension is an important vascular protective measure. However, the thresholds and goals of antihypertensive treatment have fallen as trials have shown improved outcomes with blood pressures reduced to 120/80mmHg or less. Although reducing blood pressure to the lower target levels must be the primary goal of treatment, the use of diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors should be considered as first-line therapy in the diabetic patient. Both agents have been demonstrated to improve a wide range of cardiovascular outcomes compared to other antihypertensive medications. Key words: diabetes, hypertension, nephropathy, blood pressure control.