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Post-test: Exercise Prescription for Back Pain

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Question 1 of 5
The mechanisms through which exercise reduces pain do not include:
Cytokine neuromodulation
Anti-aging mechanisms, including mitochondrial biogenesis, cytoprotection, hypertrophy, anti-oxidant defense, activation of stem cells, and improved proteostasis.
Increased C-Reactive Protein levels
Improved social interaction and confidence