This article reviews surgical and nonsurgical rejuvenation techniques as they relate to the anatomic changes that occur with facial aging. An understanding of the changes that occur to the facial soft tissues and their support structures over time and with exposure to the elements facilitates individualized treatment optimization for older adults seeking facial rejuvenation. In addition, treatment optimization must take into account the patient’s underlying medical status and personal psychosocial concerns.
Key words: facial rejuvenation, cosmetic surgery, facial aging, noninvasive rejuvenation, photoaging.
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