Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Review of Diagnosis and Management

Neil Pugashetti,1 Shabbir M.H. Alibhai,3 Stanley A. Yap,1,2

1Department of Urology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA.
2Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, VA Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, CA, USA.
3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Abstract: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) represents the large majority of newly diagnosed bladder tumors and represents a significant burden to both patients and the healthcare system. Although the initial standard treatment for all non-muscle-invasive tumors is surgical resection, there exist a wide variety of both surgical and medical treatment modalities based upon the tumor's specific stage and grade. Ensuring a proper diagnosis is key, and management should be tailored to the individual in order to reduce cancer recurrence and prevent progression of disease.
Key Words: Bladder cancer, non-muscle-invasive, diagnosis, treatment.

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Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer consists of papillary tumors (Ta), tumors invading the submucosal lamina propria (T1), and flat lesions known as carcinoma in situ (CIS).
Proper management is key given the significant risk of tumor recurrence or progression to muscle-invasive disease.
Many treatment modalities exist including transurethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy, intravesical immunotherapy, and radical cystectomy; treatment choice depends on a variety of factors including tumor stage and grade.
The gold standard for the complete work-up of hematuria is office cystoscopy and imaging of the upper urinary tract.
Initial standard treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors is TURBT; at the time of resection, sampling of muscle surrounding the lesion is important to accurately assess depth of invasion.
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