Navigating the Gender Spectrum: A General Overview of Transgender Health Care

Dr. Adam C. Millar, MD, MScCH, FRCPC,

Mount Sinai Hospital, Assistant Professor, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.


Abstract:Transgenderism is common, with quoted prevalence rates of between 0.5-1% of the population.1,2,3 The term "transgender" reflects a broad spectrum of identities, including agender, pangender, genderqueer and genderfluid. Although there is increased public recognition of transgender issues, many physicians remain uncomfortable managing matters of transgender health. There is a paucity of high quality, long term randomized controlled trials on many transgender health topics, requiring physicians to rely largely on consensus guidelines. Integration of transgender-related subject matter into medical school curricula is one of the first steps towards enabling future physicians to increase their comfort in transgender health care.
Key Words: Transgender, trans, testosterone, estrogen, androgen blockade.

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1. Transgenderism is not limited to the binary gender constructs of male and female. The term "transgender" includes a broad spectrum of identities, including agender, pangender, genderfluid and genderqueer.
2. Lack of physician comfort with medical management of the transgender patient has been linked to increased rates of refusal of medical care, as well as verbal harassment and in extreme cases physical assault.
3. Due in part to a lack of large randomized controlled trials, many transgender guideline recommendations are based on expert opinion and relatively low quality evidence.
Rather than assume one's gender identity, it is advisable to ask the patient how they identify, and what pronouns are preferred.
There are no specific hormonal targets during transition therapy. Instead, treatment targets are defined by the patient's goals and overall sense of well-being.
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