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Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia—Medical and Surgical Treatment Options

Dean S. Elterman, MD, MSc, FRCSC,1 Udi Blankstein, MD,2

1Attending Urologic Surgeon, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Assistant Professor, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
2Department of Urology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects the aging male. Treatment options vary widely. Some men will elect to conservatively monitor their symptoms and make alterations to their lifestyle choices. Pharmacotherapy options exist as well, and include alpha-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Lastly, surgical options are also a viable treatment option, with many types at the disposal of the caregiver. Technological advancements have changed, and will continue to change the field in the near future. This review outlines the important aspects of this common affliction.
Key Words:Benign prostatic hyperplasia, management, treatment, referral.

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There is a spectrum of bother ranging from mild nuisance to significant decrease in quality of life – this is largely associated with how the patient perceives the problem.
Physical exam and medical history are imperative in the initial assessment of BPH.
Conservative measures and lifestyle changes should be the first line treatment choice.
Surgical intervention should be attempted after failure of medical therapy to alleviate symptoms and prevent kidney injury or infection.
Ensure that there are no other causes that may cause LUTS such as various medications, and other comorbidities.
When considering more invasive intervention, ensure that the surgical team knows the patient's anticoagulation status.
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