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Surgical Management of Erectile Dysfunction

Teaser: 

Justin J. Badal, MD,1 Genevieve Sweet, MD, 2Shelley Godley, MD,3Stanley A. Yap, MD,4Dana Nanigian, MD, 5

1Department of Urology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California.
2Department of Urology, Sutter Medical Group, Roseville, California.
3Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, California.
4Department of Urology, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California and Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, California.
5Chief of Urology, Department of Urology, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System, Sacramento, California.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common sexual disorders affecting men. Discussion regarding erectile function, diagnosis, and management of the disease typically begins at the primary care level. A broad understanding of the basic causative factors and initial treatment regimens gives primary care physicians the ability to treat ED. An enhanced understanding of surgical options allows for referrals to be made to urologists for advanced surgical treatment of ED in patients who have failed medical therapies. Initial diagnosis and continued workup can be performed prior to consultation with a surgical specialist. Detailed here are different causes of ED as well as their respective studies to enhance initial surgical evaluation.
Key Words:erectile dysfunction, diagnosis, management, treatment.

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2

You can take quizzes without subscribing; however, your results will not be stored. Subscribers will have access to their quiz results for future reference.

A thorough discussion regarding the irreversibility of penile implants is strongly recommended with the patient before proceeding.
Inflatable penile prosthetics avoid the effect of the constant erection created by malleable implants.
Partner satisfaction is highest with the inflatable penile prosthesis.
The inflatable penile prosthesis is the most preferred among men.
Adverse events/complications associated with SNM use include: pain at the implantation site, lead migration, wound-related complications, bowel dysfunction, infection, and generator problems.
Postoperative outcomes can be improved with detailed counseling in regards to modifiable risk factors, such as achieving appropriate glycemic control.
Candidates for revascularization therapy should be carefully selected, with those who are younger and have sustained pelvic trauma having the best outcomes.
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Median Raphe Cysts

Teaser: 

Mary Tong, BHSc, MD Candidate,1 Joseph M. Lam, MD, FRCSC,2

1McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.
2Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology University of British Columbia, BC.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Median raphe cysts are rare congenital lesions caused by a defect in embryological development of the male genitalia. They can present as solitary or multiple papules along the median raphe from urethral meatus to the anus. Although they are asymptomatic during childhood, they can cause problems later on as they increase in size. Surgical excision of the lesion is not necessary unless the patient becomes symptomatic.
Key Words: median raphe cysts, congenital lesions, treatment, management.
Median raphe cysts are benign cysts that can be present at birth, or acquired due to trauma or infection in the genitalia area.
Histologically, the cysts can have pseudo stratified columnar, squamous cell, or glandular epithelium, or a mixture of these cells.
Although these cysts are asymptomatic during childhood, they should be monitored overtime because they may cause problems as they increase in size with time.
Because these are benign malformations, median raphe cysts do not require excision unless they cause problems such as pain, problems with urination or sexual activity, or for cosmetic reasons.
Median raphe cysts are benign lesions that may be caused be a defect in the embryological development of the male genitalia.
The differential diagnoses of median raphe cyst include glomus tumor, dermoid cyst, pilonidal cyst, epidermal inclusion cyst, urethral diverticulum, and steatocystoma.
Treatment for asymptomatic median raphe cyst is not necessary but surgical excision can be considered if the cyst is causing problems or for cosmetic reasons.
To have access to full article that these tools were developed for, please subscribe. The cost to subscribe is only $20 USD per year and you will gain full access to all the premium content on www.healthplexus.net, an educational portal, that hosts 1000s of clinical reviews, case studies, educational visual aids and more as well as within the mobile app.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia—Medical and Surgical Treatment Options

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia—Medical and Surgical Treatment Options

Teaser: 

Dean S. Elterman, MD, MSc, FRCSC,1 Udi Blankstein, MD,2

1Attending Urologic Surgeon, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Assistant Professor, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
2Department of Urology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) affects the aging male. Treatment options vary widely. Some men will elect to conservatively monitor their symptoms and make alterations to their lifestyle choices. Pharmacotherapy options exist as well, and include alpha-blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Lastly, surgical options are also a viable treatment option, with many types at the disposal of the caregiver. Technological advancements have changed, and will continue to change the field in the near future. This review outlines the important aspects of this common affliction.
Key Words:Benign prostatic hyperplasia, management, treatment, referral.

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2

You can take quizzes without subscribing; however, your results will not be stored. Subscribers will have access to their quiz results for future reference.

There is a spectrum of bother ranging from mild nuisance to significant decrease in quality of life – this is largely associated with how the patient perceives the problem.
Physical exam and medical history are imperative in the initial assessment of BPH.
Conservative measures and lifestyle changes should be the first line treatment choice.
Surgical intervention should be attempted after failure of medical therapy to alleviate symptoms and prevent kidney injury or infection.
Ensure that there are no other causes that may cause LUTS such as various medications, and other comorbidities.
When considering more invasive intervention, ensure that the surgical team knows the patient's anticoagulation status.
To have access to full article that these tools were developed for, please subscribe. The cost to subscribe is only $20 USD per year and you will gain full access to all the premium content on www.healthplexus.net, an educational portal, that hosts 1000s of clinical reviews, case studies, educational visual aids and more as well as within the mobile app.

CORE BACK TOOL 2016: New and Improved!

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2
Teaser: 

Dr. Julia Alleyne, BHSc(PT), MD, CCFP, Dip. Sport Med MScCH,1 Yoga Raja Rampersaud, MD, FRCSC,2 Jess Rogers3Dr. Hamilton Hall, MD, FRCSC,4

1 is a Family Physician practising Sport and Exercise Medicine at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, University Health Network. She is appointed at the University of Toronto, Department of Family and Community Medicine as an Associate Clinical Professor.
2Associate Professor Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Divisions of Orthopaedic and Neurosurgery, University Health Network Medical Director, Back and Neck Specialty Program, Altum Health, Past President Canadian Spine Society, Toronto, ON.
3 is the Director at the Centre for Effective Practice (CEP). Jess' role includes developing evidence-based clinical guidance for providers. Jess was the Project Lead in executing the primary care provider education component of Ontario's Low Back Pain initiative including the CORE Back Tool. CEP is pleased to have funded the update of the CORE Back Tool 2016 to continue supporting primary care providers.
4 is a Professor in the Department of Surgery at the University of Toronto. He is the Medical Director, CBI Health Group and Executive Director of the Canadian Spine Society in Toronto, Ontario.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Through the redesign of the already successful Clinically Organized Relevant Exam (CORE) Back Tool, primary care clinicians now have a more comprehensive, user-friendly approach to clinical decision making for patients presenting with low back pain. The key components of the tool include a high yield history connected to mechanical low back pain patterns, embedded key patient messages, clear listing of appropriate radiological indications, criteria for consultant referrals as well as a management matrix geared to office practice. A clinical case will be used to demonstrate the application of the tool to practice and instruct the reader on the key features.
Key Words: Low Back Pain, Tool, Primary Care Providers, Management.

Members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada may claim MAINPRO-M2 Credits for this unaccredited educational program.

www.cfpc.ca/Mainpro_M2

You can take quizzes without subscribing; however, your results will not be stored. Subscribers will have access to their quiz results for future reference.

1. Mechanical Patterns are a logical way to conceptualize, assess and manage low back pain.
2. If pain does not fit a mechanical pattern, the patient may have non-spine referred pain from organs or a chronic pain disorder.
3. Radicular (nerve) pain will have a positive straight leg raise (SLR) with reproduction of the typical leg dominant pain and possible abnormal neurological signs.
Initial patient management should include goals of reducing pain and increasing activity.
To have access to full article that these tools were developed for, please subscribe. The cost to subscribe is only $20 USD per year and you will gain full access to all the premium content on www.healthplexus.net, an educational portal, that hosts 1000s of clinical reviews, case studies, educational visual aids and more as well as within the mobile app.

The Patient with Newly Diagnosed Ulcerative Colitis

The Patient with Newly Diagnosed Ulcerative Colitis

Teaser: 

Publication of THE LATEST IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS CARE supplement was made possible by an unrestricted educational grant from Aptalis Pharma

1James Gregor, MD,2Co-authors: John Howard, MD, Nitin Khanna, MD, and Nilesh Chande, MD,

1Division of Gastroenterology, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON.

2are members of the Division of Gastroenterology, London Health Sciences Centre, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON.

CLINICAL TOOLS

Abstract: Informed patients are one of the most important assets available in the management of patients with ulcerative colitis. Clinical experience reinforces that most patients have similar questions upon diagnosis. Anticipating these questions and tailoring them to a particular patient's disease severity and extent should not only streamline follow-up but also mitigate confusion and augment the benefit of the plethora of information available in the 21st century. Using our local experience, we have defined the 10 most common questions asked by patients and modified the answers, where necessary, to improve their specificity to patients with ulcerative proctitis, left-sided ulcerative colitis, and pancolitis.
Key Words: ulcerative colitis, patient, questions, classification, management.

Patients can be relatively ill informed regarding the nature of their UC, its management, and its ultimate prognosis.
Generally, disease extent is divided into three categories: ulcerative proctitis, left-sided disease, and pancolitis.
A simple approach with frequently asked questions (FAQs) is a highly desirable and efficient means of transmitting information.
Clinical experience reinforces that most patients have similar questions upon diagnosis with UC.
Anticipating these questions and tailoring them to a particular patient's disease severity and extent should streamline follow-up and also mitigate confusion.
To have access to full article that these tools were developed for, please subscribe. The cost to subscribe is only $20 USD per year and you will gain full access to all the premium content on www.healthplexus.net, an educational portal, that hosts 1000s of clinical reviews, case studies, educational visual aids and more as well as within the mobile app.

Le patient venant de recevoir un diagnostic de colite ulcéreuse : Prévoir les questions et personaliser les réponses

Le patient venant de recevoir un diagnostic de colite ulcéreuse : Prévoir les questions et personaliser les réponses

Teaser: 

James Gregor, M.D., est membre du département de gastroentérologie de l'Université Western Ontario, London (Ontario).
Co-auteurs : John Howard, M.D., Nitin Khanna, M.D. et Nilesh Chande, M.D.
sont membres du département de gastro-entérologie du London Health Sciences Centre (Université Western) London (Ontario).

Résumé
L'un des atouts les plus importants dans la prise en charge des patients atteints de colite ulcéreuse consiste à avoir des patients bien informés. L'expérience clinique montre que la plupart des patients ont des questions similaires lors de leur diagnostic. En anticipant ces questions et en les adaptant à la gravité et l'étendue de la maladie d'un patient, il est possible non seulement de simplifier le suivi, mais également de réduire la confusion et d'augmenter les bienfaits apportés par la pléthore de renseignements disponibles au 21e siècle. D'après notre expérience locale, nous avons défini les 10 questions les plus couramment posées par les patients et modifié les réponses, au besoin, pour qu'elles soient mieux adaptées aux patients atteints de rectite ou proctite ulcéreuse, de colite ulcéreuse gauche ou de pancolite.
Mos clés : colite ulcéreuse, patient, questions, classification, prise en charge.

Managing Cancer in Older Adults

Managing Cancer in Older Adults

Teaser: 

I am someone who believes fervently in screening for colon cancer, and have had two colonoscopies (separated by 5 years). Even those at normal risk seem to benefit from some form of screening, and I have been particularly concerned because I have had close relatives afflicted by the disease. However, it is clear that many people who should know better refuse to be screened. Even simple screening tests such as fecal occult blood testing require people to endure relatively unpleasant activities, and colonoscopy prep is hardly fun.

Independent of my views, it is obvious that the rising prevalence of cancer of all types in Canada is a result of the aging of our population and the relative decline in cardiovascular mortality. Many of today’s cancer patients are relatively frail, or become so while getting treatment, and attention to geriatric medicine principles in these patients is important. Most oncology training programs in the United States incorporate a geriatric module to cover these issues. We are lagging a bit behind in Canada in this respect, but I am proud to say that one of the nation’s outstanding leaders in the field of geriatric oncology is our own senior editor, Dr. Shabbir Alibhai. The focus of this month’s edition is how cancer management is altered in older adults.

Our continuing education article, “Management of Primary Colon Cancer in Older Adults,” is by Dr. Robin McLeod, Selina Schmocker, and Dr. Erin Kennedy. Obviously, I hope never to have to worry about this because I have a commitment to screening! The very common ( and currently in the press) topic of “Multiple Myeloma in Older Adults: An Update” is written by Dr. Madappa N. Kundranda and Dr. Joseph Mikhael. The commonest cancer in older individuals is addressed in the article “Basal Cell Carcinoma” by Dr. Christian A. Murray and Dr. Erin Dahlke.

As well, we have our usual collection of articles on varied topics. Our Cardiovascular column is an “Update on the Management of Atrial Fibrillation in Older Adults” by Dr. Hatim Al Lawati, Dr. Fatemeh Akbarian, and Dr. Mohammad Ali Shafiee. Our Dementia article is on a common and difficult topic, “Withholding and Withdrawing Life-Sustaining Treatment in Advanced Dementia: How and When to Make These Difficult Decisions,” by Dr. Dylan Harris. In the area of nutrition, we have the article “Nutrition Guidelines for Cancer Prevention: More Than Just Food for Thought” by Kristen Currie, Sheri Stillman, Susan Haines, and Dr. John Trachtenberg. This is a natural extension from our focus this month. Our Community Care article is “Community-Based Health Care for Frail Seniors: Development and Evaluation of a Program” by Dr. Douglas C. Duke and Teresa Genge. Finally we feature one of Canada’s most prominent physicians in our “I Am a Geriatrician” column, namely Dr. Howard Bergman.

Enjoy this issue,
Barry Goldlist

Diagnosis and Management of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Diagnosis and Management of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

Teaser: 

Amitabh Gupta, MD, Clinical Fellow, Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, ON.
Susan Fox, MD, Assistant Professor, Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, ON.

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare, fatal neurodegenerative disease with limited treatment options that is characterized by gait and postural instability and a classical vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. Initially often misdiagnosed as idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD), proper patient care in PSP may be delayed until late into the disease course, after dopaminergic medication fails to improve symptoms. Here, we review the diagnostic criteria that help to separate PSP from IPD and rarer forms of parkinsonian diseases to help clinicians with earlier recognition. We discuss current treatment concepts as well as ongoing experimental approaches that are derived from an emerging pathological understanding.
Key words: progressive supranuclear palsy, clinical diagnosis, imaging, differential diagnosis, management.

The Silent Geriatric Giant: Anxiety Disorders in Late Life

The Silent Geriatric Giant: Anxiety Disorders in Late Life

Teaser: 

Keri-Leigh Cassidy, MD, Department of Psychiatry, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
Neil A. Rector, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Late-life anxiety can often be “silent”--missed or difficult to diagnose as older adults tend to somatize psychiatric problems; have multiple psychiatric, medical, and medication issues; and present anxiety differently than do younger patients. Yet late-life anxiety disorders are a “geriatric giant,” being twice as prevalent as dementia among older adults, and four to eight times more prevalent than major depressive disorders, causing significant impact on the quality of life, morbidity, and mortality of older adults. Treatment of late-life anxiety is a challenge given concerns about medication side effects in older, frail, or medically ill patients. Antidepressants are recommended but not always tolerated, and benzodiazepines are generally to be avoided in this population. Effective psychotherapies such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) are of particular interest for the older adult population, and the combination of CBT and medication is often needed to optimize treatment.
Key words: anxiety, late life, management, cognitive behavioural therapy.

Postural and Postprandial Hypotension: Approach to Management

Postural and Postprandial Hypotension: Approach to Management

Teaser: 


Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, MD, MPH, FRCPC, ABIM, Associate Professor, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Postural and postprandial hypotension are common conditions among older adults. They are causes of dizziness, syncope, and falls in older people. These conditions may result in significant morbidity, a decrease in function, and mortality. Dysregulation of blood pressure in older adults can result in postural and postprandial hypotension. Routine screening for these conditions is easy to perform and helps to diagnose and manage them appropriately. Management includes a combination of nonpharmacological and pharmacological interventions.
Key words: postural hypotension, postprandial hypotension, management, blood pressure, older adults.